Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO)-chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as anti-cancer agents. And corona?

Verbaanderd C1,2,3Maes H2Schaaf MB2Sukhatme VP4,5Pantziarka P1,6Sukhatme V4Agostinis P2Bouche G1.

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Abstract Source: Pubmed

Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are well-known 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial agents. Scientific evidence also supports the use of CQ and HCQ in the treatment of cancer.

Overall, preclinical studies support CQ and HCQ use in anti-cancer therapy, especially in combination with conventional anti-cancer treatments since they are able to sensitise tumour cells to a variety of drugs, potentiating the therapeutic activity. Thus far, clinical results are mostly in favour of the repurposing of CQ. However, over 30 clinical studies are still evaluating the activity of both CQ and HCQ in different cancer types and in combination with various standard treatments. Interestingly, CQ and HCQ exert effects both on cancer cells and on the tumour microenvironment. In addition to inhibition of the autophagic flux, which is the most studied anti-cancer effect of CQ and HCQ, these drugs affect the Toll-like receptor 9, p53 and CXCR4-CXCL12 pathway in cancer cells. In the tumour stroma, CQ was shown to affect the tumour vasculature, cancer-associated fibroblasts and the immune system. The evidence reviewed in this paper indicates that both CQ and HCQ deserve further clinical investigations in several cancer types. Special attention about the drug (CQ versus HCQ), the dose and the schedule of administration should be taken in the design of new trials.

About Chloroquine and corona

Surf to: https://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-422X-2-69/figures/2 READ MORE (on BMC)

AND: https://www.healthline.com/health/coronavirus-treatment

Warning;
Chloroquine is very dangerous in overdose. It is rapidly absorbed from the gut. In 1961, published studies showed three children who took overdoses died within 2.5 hours of taking the drug. While the amount of the overdose was not cited.

KEYWORDS:

Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO) project; anti-malarial agents; antineoplastic agents; chloroquine (CQ); drug repositioning; hydroxychloroquine (HCQ); neoplasms

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